Aqueous Salt Solutions

Phase diagrams for salt solutions

Phase diagrams are useful tools for the design of processes. A phase diagram shows the conditions at which different phases are in thermodynamic equilibrium. Phase diagrams are visual tools to display the properties of pure compounds forming various phases at different temperatures and pressures. In a phase diagram for a pure component, solid-liquid, vapor-liquid, solid-vapor, and solid-solid equilibria can be shown in the same diagram. This is not possible for a binary system. Phase diagrams for binary solutions are more complicated because they have an extra dimension, composition. Because of the extra dimension in binary phase diagrams, vapor-liquid equilibria and solid-liquid equilibria are usually not shown in the same phasediagram.

Phase diagrams showing vapor-liquid equilibrium for binary systems at constant pressure or at constant temperature are the well known Txy and Pxy diagrams. Solid-liquid equilibrium phase diagrams for binary systems can be displayed as a function of temperature and composition at a pressure which is usually above the bubble point of the solutions. The formation of two or more liquid phases in equilibrium with each other in binary and in multi component solutions adds complexity to these systems. Still phase diagrams for binary, ternary, quaternary, and even quinary solutions are valuable tools for visualizing the process conditions required to achieve a specific process objective.

Phase diagrams are constructed and used for all types of compounds. At this site, the focus is on phase diagrams of aqueous solutions containing salts, amines, or sour gases that create electrolytic solutions. The phase diagrams displayed on these pages are calculated with the Extended UNIQUAC thermodynamic model.

The Extended UNIQUAC model

Phase diagram for the NaNO3 - Na2SO4 - H2O system at 30°C

The Extended UNIQUAC model is a thermodynamic model for aqueous solutions of electrolytes and non-electrolytes. The model has been documented through a number of publications in international scientific journals. The parameters of the model are based on a large amount of experimental data which enables the model to describe the phase behavior and the thermal properties of solutions containing electrolytes with great accuracy. The experimental data include solid-liquid equilibrium data as well as experimentally measured activity and osmotic coefficients from the open literature. Also experimentally measured thermal properties such as heat of dilution, heat of solution, and apparent molal heat capacity for salt solutions were used for the determination of model parameters. These properties can therefore also be reproduced by the model.

The accuracy of the model is best illustrated by displaying calculated and experimental phase diagrams together. Examples of such phase diagrams are given on these pages. Calculated phase diagrams are plotted along with experimental data from the open literature in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the model. The phase diagrams cover both solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE), vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) and liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE).

The main model parameters of the Extended UNIQUAC model are the binary interaction parameters, which are determined from binary and ternary experimental data. In addition to the binary interaction parameters, the model also uses size parameters that are specific to each species. The model predicts the behavior of multi component systems based on these unary and binary parameters.

As the model parameters are based on binary and ternary data alone, the calculation of phase behavior in multi-component systems represents prediction by the model. The ability of the model to predict phase behavior in multi component systems is illustrated by the calculation of quaternary phase diagrams.

Process simulation and optimization

The thermodynamic model makes it possible to perform process simulation and optimization of processes involving aqueous salt solutions. The model has been implemented in multi phase equilibrium calculation software. The software includes vapor-liquid-liquid-solid equilibrium (VLLSE). This software can be called from Microsoft Excel® or other Visual Basic Applications. A free demo version of the software, which only applies to solid-liquid equilibrium calculations can be downloaded from this site.

Swiss watch brand Linde Werdelin introduces its new limited edition SpidoSpeed Black Diamond watch. The iconic SpidoSpeed chronograph returns featuring an exclusive series bearing 48+1 in the dial brilliant-cut black diamonds of 1.57 carats mounted on its skeletonised DLC – diamond-like-carbon –Adidas Messi 16.3 IC treated case featuring a rare mother of pearl dial.MBT Kisumu 2 The watch is limited to only 50 pieces.Nike Air Max 2016Stussy presents a fantastic new outerwear piece for Holiday 2015.Air Jordan 2 Men This weekend the brand’Adidas Kaiser 5 FGs new GORE-TEX Paclite Shell Coat launched. The nylon long coat is light weight, breathable and of course fully water resistant.Nike Roshe Run BR The perfect companion for the windy and wet months ahead of us,Air Jordan 6 the navy overcoat features minimal Stussy GORE-TEX branding, in the form of a contrasting white logo embroidery on the sleeve.Adidas Springblade Schuhe You can get it now for $550 form the brand’s online store.Here is our weekly street style update from Paris. Looks like things are heating up and people are breaking out the shorts, while still focusing on interesting layering and accessories. Mixing patterns with denim and solid colored pieces is a popular take. In terms of brands we see this week BAPE, Nike, Levis, Vans mixed with basics,Nike Elastico Pro III IC vintage pieces and some unique styles.Nike ELASTICO Finale III Street TF Photography: Mathieu Vilasco/ The weekly street style spread follows after the jump.